About the NBAS and NBO

Brazelton T. Berry and Nugent, J. Kevin (2011) The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, 4th edition. Mac Keith Press, London

Britt, G.C. & Myers, B.J. (1994b). The effects of Brazelton intervention: a review. Infant Mental Health Journal, 15(3), 278-292.

Das Eiden, R. & Reifman, A. (1996). Effects of Brazelton demonstrations on later parenting: a meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21(6). 857-868.

Hawthorne, J. (2005). Using the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale to support parent-infant relationships. Infant, 1(6), 213-218.

Nugent JK (1985) Using the NBAS with infants and their families: Guidelines for intervention. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation.

Nugent JK and Brazelton TB (1989) Preventive intervention with infants and families: the NBAS model. Infant Mental Health Journal, 10, 84-99.

Nugent, J. K. Petruaskas, B., Brazelton, T. B. (2009). The Infant as a Person: enabling healthy infant development worldwide. Hoboken, NJ.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keefer, C., Johnson, L., Minear, S. (2009). Relationship-based practice in the Newborn Nursery. In J. K Nugent, B. Petrauskas, & T.B. Brazelton, (Eds.) The Infant as a Person: enabling healthy infant development worldwide. Hoboken, NJ.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Blanchard, Y. (2009). Using the NBO in early intervention. In J. K Nugent, B. Petrauskas, & T.B. Brazelton, (Eds.) The Infant as a Person: enabling healthy infant development worldwide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Nugent, J. K., Blanchard, Y., Stewart, J.S. (2007). Supporting parents of premature infants: an infant-focused family-centered approach. In D. Brodsky and M. Ouelette, (Eds.) Primary Care of the Premature Infant. Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Worobey, J. (1985). A Review of Brazelton-based interventions to enhance parent-infant interaction. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 3(2), 64-73.

Theory and Background

Cramer B (1987) Objective and subjective aspects of parent-infant relations. In J. Osofsky (Ed), The handbook of infant development (2nd ed, pp. 1037-1059) New York, Wiley

Klaus MH, Kennell JH, and Klaus PH. (1995) Bonding. Reading, Mass. Addison-Wesley

Murray L and Cooper PJ (1997). The role of infant and maternal factors in postpartum depression, mother-infant interactions, and infant outcomes. In L. Murray and PJ Cooper (Eds). Postpartum depression and child development. New York/London: The Guildford Press.

Nugent JK (1991) Cultural and psychological influences on the father’s role in infant development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 2, 475-485.

Field T. (1987) Affective and interactive disturbances in infants. In J. Osofsky (Ed), The handbook of infant development (2nd ed. pp. 972-1005). New York: Wiley

Studies using the NBAS as a research measure, in Peer-Reviewed Journals

Accornero V.H., Anthony J.C., Morrow C.E., Xue L., Mansoor E., Johnson A.L., McCoy C.B., & Bandstra E.S. (2011). Estimated effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on examiner-rated behavior at age 7 years. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 33(3), 370-8.

Bakeman R, and Brown JV. (1980) Early interaction: consequences for social and mental development at three years. Child Development, 51, 437-447

Bruschweiler-Stern N. (1997) Mere a terme et mere premature. In M. Dugnant (Ed), Le monde relationnel du bebe. Ramonville Saint-Agne: ERES

Canals J, Fernandez-Ballart J and Esparo J (2003). Evolution of neonatal behavior assessment scale scores in the first month of life. Infant Behavior & Development, 26, 227-37.

Canals J, Hernandez-Martinez C, Esparo G, and Fernandez-Ballart J (2011). Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale as a predictor of cognitive development and IQ in full-term infants: a 6-year longitudinal study.Acta Pediatrica, 100, 1331-7.

Dreher M.C., Nugent J.K., & Hudgins R. (1994). Prenatal marijuana exposure and neonatal outcomes in Jamaica: an ethnographic study. Pediatrics, 93(2), 254-60.

Eyler F.D., Behnke M, Conlon M, Woods N.S., & Wobie K. (1998). Birth outcome from a prospective, matched study of prenatal crack/cocaine use: I. Interactive and dose effects on health and growth. Pediatrics, 101(2), 229-37.

Feldman R & Eidelman A. (2006). Neonatal state organization, neuromaturation, mother-infant interaction, and cognitive development in small-for-gestational-age premature infants. Pediatrics, 118(3), 869-78.

Hernandez-Martinez C, Arija V.V., Escribano S.J., Canals S.J. (2012).A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior. Early Human Development, 88(6), 403-8.

Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Diego M, and Ruddock M (2006). Greater arousal and less attentiveness to face/voice stimuli by neonates of depressed mothers on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 594-8.

Keefer CH, Tronick E, Dixon S and Brazelton TB (1982).Specific difference in motor performance between Gusii and American newborns and a modification of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.Child Development, 53, 754-9.

Keenan K., Gunthorpe D., & Grace D. (2007). Parsing the relations between SES and stress reactivity: examining individual differences in neonatal stress response. Infant Behavior & Development, 30(1), 134-145.

Linn PL and Horowitz FD (1984) The relationship between infant individual differences and mother-infant interaction in the neonatal period.Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 415-427.

Loo KL, Ohgi S, Zhu H, Howard J & Chen L (2005). “Cross-cultural comparison of the neurobehavioral characteristics of Chines and Japanese neonates”. Pediatrics International, 47, 446-51.

Mansi G, De Maio C, Araimo G, Rotta I, Crivaro V, Sarno M, Raimondi F & Paludetto R. (2003). “Safe” hyperbilirubinemia is associated with altered neonatal behavior.Biology of the Neonate, 83(1), 19-21.

Mansi G, Raimondi F, Pichini S, Capasso L, Sarno M, Zuccaro P, Garcia-Algar O, Romano A, Paludetto R. (2007) Neonatal urinary cotinine correlates with behavioral alterations in newborns prenatally exposed to tobacco smoke. Pediatric Research, 61(2), 257-61.

Oberlander, T. F., Jacobson, S. W., Weinberg, J., Grunau, R. E., Molteno, C. D. and Jacobson, J. L. (2010), Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Alters Biobehavioral Reactivity to Pain in Newborns. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34: 681–692.

Sagiv S.K., Nugent J.K., Brazelton T.B., Choi A.L., Tolbert P.E., Altshul L.M., Korrick S.A. (2008). Prenatal organochlorine exposure and measures of behavior in infancy using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS).Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(5), 666-73.

Wolf M.J., Koldewijn K., Beelen A, Smit B, Hedlund R & de Groot I.J. (2002). Neurobehavioral and developmental profile of very low birthweight preterm infants in early infancy. Acta Pediatrica, 91(8), 930-8.

Studies using the NBAS as a support tool, in Peer-Reviewed Journals

Anderson CJ, and Sawin D. (1983). Enhancing responsiveness in mother-infant interaction. Infant Behavior and Development 6, (3), 361-368

Beal JA (1989) The effect on father-infant interaction of demonstrating the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale. Birth, 16, 18-22.

Beeghly, M., Brazelton, T.B., Flannery, K.A., Nugent, J.K., Barrett, D.E. & Tronick, E.Z. (1995). Specificity of preventative pediatric intervention effects in early infancy.Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16(3), 158-166.

Belsky, J. (1985). Experimenting with the family in the newborn period. Child Development, 56(2), 407-414.

Britt, G.C. & Myers, B.J. (1994a). Testing the effectiveness of NBAS intervention with a substance-using population. Infant Mental Health Journal. 15(3). 293-301.

Cardone I and Gilkerson L (1990) Family Administered Neonatal Activities: a first step in the integration of parental perceptions and newborn behavior. Infant Mental Health Journal, 11, 127-131

Fowles, E.R. (1999). The Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and Maternal Identity.The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 24(6), 287-293.

Golas, G.A. & Parks, P. (1986). Effect of early postpartum teaching on primiparas’ knowledge of infant behavior and degree of confidence.Research in Nursing & Health, 9, 209-214.

Gomes-Pedro, J., Patricio, M., Carvalho, A., Goldschmidt, T., Torgal-Garcia, F. & Monteiro, M.B. (1995).Early intervention with Portuguese mothers: a 2-year follow-up. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16(1), 21-28.

Hart, S., Field, T. & Nearing, G. (1998). Depressed mothers’ neonates improve following the MABI and a Brazelton demonstration. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 23(6), 351 – 356.

Kusaka, R., Ohgi, S., Hirotaka, G. & Fujimoto, T. (2007). Short-term effects of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale-based intervention for infants with developmental disabilities.Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 19, 1-8.

Liptak, G.S, Keller, B.B., Feldman, A.W. & Chamberlin, W. (1983). Enhancing infant development and parent-practitioner interaction with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale. Pediatrics, 72(1), 71-38.

Meisels S, Dichtelmiller M, Fong-Ruey Liaw (1993) A multidimensional analysis of early childhood intervention programs. In C. Zeanah (Ed), Handbook of Infant Mental Health, New York/London: The Guildford Press.

Myers, B.J. (1982). Early intervention using Brazelton training with middle-class mothers and fathers of newborns. Child Development, 53, 462-471.

Nurcombe, B., Howell, D.C., Rauh, V.A., Teti, D.M., Ruoff, P. & Brennan, J. (1984). An intervention program for mothers of low-birthweight infants: preliminary results. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23(3), 319-325.

Ohgi, S. Fukada, M., Akiyama, T. & Gima, H. (2004). Effect of an early intervention programme on low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries. Journal of Pediatric Child Health, 40, 689-695.

Pannabecker, B.J., Emde, R.N. & Austin, B.C. (1982). The effect of early extended contact on father-newborn interaction. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 141, 7-17.

Parker S, Zahr LK, Cole JCD, Braced ML (1992). Outcomes after developmental intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit for mothers of preterm infants with low socioeconomic status. Journal of Pediatrics, 120, 780-785

Poley-Strobel, B.A. & Beckman, C.A. (1987). The effects of teaching-modelling intervention on early mother-infant reciprocity. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 467-476.

Rauh V, Achenbach T, Nurcombe B, Howell C. and Teti D (1988) Minimizing adverse effects of low birthweight: Four-year results of an early intervention program. Child Development, 59, 544-553.

Szjanberg, N., Ward, M.J., Krauss, A. & Kessler, D.B. (1987). Low birth-weight prematures: preventive intervention and maternal attitude. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 17(3), 152-165.

Teti, D.M., Black, M.M, Viscardi, R., Glass, P., O’Connell, M.A., Baker, L. et al. (2008). Intervention with African American premature infants: four-month results of an early intervention program. Journal of Early Intervention, 31,146-166.

Wendland-Carro, J., Piccinini, C.A. & Millar, W.S. (1999). The role of an early intervention on enhancing the quality of mother-infant interaction. Child Development, 70(3), 713-721.

Widmayer S and Field T (1981) Effects of Brazelton demonstrations for mothers on the development of preterm infants. Pediatrics, 67, 711-714.

Worobey, J. & Belsky, J. (1982). Employing the Brazelton scale to influence mothering: an experimental comparison of three strategies. Developmental Psychology, 18(5), 736-743.

Studies using the NBO (as a support tool), in Peer-Reviewed Journals

Lee, P., & Mee, C. (2015). The Tameside and Glossop Early Attachment Service: Meeting the emotional needs of parents and their babies. Community Practitioner, Aug; 88(8):31-5. 

Nugent, J.K., Bartlett J.D. & Valim C. (2014). Effects of an Infant-focused Relationship-based Hospital and Home Visiting Intervention on Reducing Symptoms of Postpartum Maternal Depression: A Pilot Study. Infants and Young Children, 27, 4, 292-304.

McManus, B., & Nugent . J. K. (2011).Feasibility study of early intervention provider confidence following a neurobehavioural intervention for high-risk newborns.Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 29, 4, 395-403.

McManus, B. & Nugent, J. K. (2012). A Neurobehavioral Intervention Incorporated into a State Early Intervention Program is Associated with Higher Perceived Quality of Care Among Parents of High-Risk Newborns. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 1-8

Sanders, L.W & Buckner, E.B. (2006). The Newborn Behavioral Observations system as a nursing intervention to enhance engagement in first-time mothers: feasibility and desirability. Pediatric Nursing, 32, (5), 455-9.